nz pasture weeds

nz pasture weeds

Generally germinating at the same timeÂ, Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is an important cultivated grass species which becomes a very competitive weed when growing in cultivated crops. Leaves are oval with pointed tips. The vigorous, hardy weeds on New Zealand farms and forest plantations can be harmful in many ways – they poison animals, clog irrigation channels, and smother crops. obtusifolius has low competitive abihty as a seedling and cannot become estab-lished in established communities. ©NEW ZEALAND AGRICHEMICAL MANUAL ™ PASTURE WEED CONTROL ALWAYS READ LABEL BEFORE USE. 9. Christchurch 7671. The flowers (November to April) are pale green, small and grow in clusters closer to the ends of the stems. The end lobe has a rounded shape. The flowers are a mauve-pink colour, have five undivided petals, and are arranged in loose clusters on reddish coloured hairy stalks. arise from leaf axils. In established pastures, the most effective weed management technique is to maintain a healthy stand of grasses and legumes, which compete with the weed seedlings. As a seedling it is a rosette that develops a, Throughout New Zealand, Vetch (Vicia sativa) is a very common weed, and varies in terms of leaf shape, flower number, size and colour and the size of the pod. Usually in small clusters, flowers are seen October to April. Information about the pest Clover root weevil (Sitona lepidus), first discovered in the Waikato and Auckland in 1996. Once larger than a seedling, is difficult to control, with selective herbicides in crops. Couch (Elytrigia repens) Also known as 'twitch', it is a perennial rhizomatous weed which is problematic in both pastures and crops. Fruit is round, dry and bristly containing two seeds (referred to as nutlets). Guidelines for minimising the development of glyphosate resistance in weeds: Use the AgPest website to help identify and manage plant and weed pests on-farm. five bi-lobed white petals. So, one can imagine that if weeds are not managed properly, pasture can be badly infested with weeds in a matter of a year or couple of years. Does feeding zeolite pre-calving improve reproduction? Identifying Pasture Weeds www.specseed.com.au Fumitory (Fumaria officinalis) Summary: Found in many new cropping areas throughout all of New Zealand that is established during the autumn and spring. Black nightshade is present throughout New Zealand but less. so in the lower South Island. fescue. Plaintains are rosette perennials with upright flower stems. This is the most common dock weed found around farmyards, in damp arable & pasture land, wasteland and gardens. Its seeds are similar to those of some forage seed crops making separation of seeds problematic. Start by identifying your pasture weeds, says Bradley. Generally germinating at the same time as the crop it grows quickly and competes aggressively for space, light, nutrients and water. growing season. yellow leaves have a feathered appearance and give off a pineapple scent when crushed. A broadleaf herbicide for control of most species of thistle, buttercup and many common pasture weeds in pasture and non-crop situations. 129-172, in Healy AJ, Identification of Weeds and Clovers, A New Zealand Weed and Pest Society Publication, Editorial Services, Featherston. E.g. One weed, giant buttercup, costs the dairy industry over $150 million each year in lost productivity and attempts at control. Found in gardens, grassland, waste and marshy areas, and on the edges of forests. The composite flowers are yellow with green tinges and growing at the end of the branches. When small, barnyard grass can be identified by its upright habit, rolled leaves and lack of ligules or auricles. formation up to 1 m tall and has broad hairy leaves with deep lobes. Mouse-eared chickweed (Cerastium glomeratum) is found throughout New Zealand, in gardens, bare ground, waste areas, and grass grub-damaged  pastures. with frosts. grows in the summer and prefers sunny open situations. I heard of a case recently where staggerweed in a brassica crop caused some sheep to drown after staggering into a creek beside the paddock. The root is a strong thick perennial taproot, enabling easy regrowth. Learn how to identify invasive, noxious, and sometimes poisonous, pasture weeds that commonly infest horse pastures. The flowers are small, with five petals – two upper petals with a tinge of blue/violet, and the lower three petals pale yellow. Pinnate leaves bear four toÂ, In New Zealand three species of Vulpia (Vulpia spp) are found and being very difficult to identify they are collectively known as vulpia hair grass (VHG) or silver grass, rat-tail or squirrel-tailed, A hairy perennial that grows to 1m tall, White Campion (Silene latifolia) have stalkless upper hairy leaves in opposite pairs. Can be tank mixed with Multiple for larger, hardier thistles or where resistance is suspected. It a low growing spreading annual (up to 40 cm) with, light green soft leaves, (lighter underneath) up to 2 cm long. The leaves are in opposite pairs on hairy stalks. A member of the Brassicaceae family, wild turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. Wireweed prefers to germinate in wet soils so it is problematic in winter and inÂ, Yellow bristle grass (Setaria pumila) or YBG is one of a number of related species found in New Zealand and is widespread across parts of the North Island. Flowers are very small, pale yellow, numerous, and can be found at the top of the main stem or at the end of branches. Flowering is September to May. leaves are slender, toothed and sometimes hairy. Uncontrolled annual ryegrass will significantly reduce yields. Found in moist disturbed areas such as roadsides, cropland, pasture, drainage ditches and waste areas. Pasture Weed Watch. There are links at the species level to related weed and pest plant resources: Weedbusters, AgPest, MPI Biosecurity NZ, nzflora Weed Profiles, Ngā Tipu o Aotearoa – New Zealand Plants, and other identification keys. found in pasture, grassland and arable land. The leaves up to 9 cm long, in opposite pairs, are oval, pointed, toothed and a greenish–yellow in colour. I am sure star weed would be high in a top 20 on the list of worst amenity turf weeds in New Zealand, but they are not very often a weed in gardens. Forages for reduced nitrate leaching programme, Selwyn and Hinds - Meeting a Sustainable Future, Meeting a Sustainable Future Partner Farms. It is a common weed in arable and horticultural crops, gardens and waste areas. Seeds germinate throughout the year with theÂ, Malva sylvestris is an upright perennial that can grow to 1.2 metres tall. Sow in early autumn or spring, at the recommended rate of 35 kg per ha. The People section shows you how to recruit quality staff, be a better manager, work within the law, grow your people and much more. Galinsoga is found in cultivated land, pasture, gardens and road-sides in the South Island, and more occasionally in the North Island. Weeds such as … The flowers are bright yellow with four petals. Wild oat seeds can remain viable in the soil for several years and the common saying “one year’s seeding, 7 years weeding” stands very true for wild oats. It grows in a rosette, Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule) is commonly present in cropping areas in the South island. The Pasture Condition Score Tool adapted from a concept developed by DairyNZ helps determine what action to take to improve your pasture depending on its condition. The erect 60 cm tall annual is often found on farms in stock camps where it needs bare ground to germinate. It is not particularly common in New Zealand, and found chiefly in the North Island, and the north and east of the South Island. Sharemilking and contract milking arrangements, Purpose, vision, values and guiding principles, Round out your business planning skillset, Round out your financial management skillset, Spring pasture management after an adverse event, New chair brings fresh focus on sustainable dairying, Herd owning, Land owning or Leasing business owner, Active Surveillance and grazing management, National Reproductive Strategy Group (NRSG), Body condition and nutrition for reproduction, New traits to improve genetic merit for fertility, Growing NZ’s next generation of dairy scientists. 2547 Old West Coast Road. cross-section, dark green pointed bristly leaves up to 15 m long in whorls of four lower on the stems, or six higher up. Wild carrot (Daucus carota), a common pasture weed in some fields, has about 16 percent crude protein in the vegetative stage. Flowers are up to 28mm long, and appear between August to June. The root system is easily broken up by cultivation but new plants originate from these and can be very problematic in crops and new pastures. with yellow centers. The ligule is long and finely serrated, auricles are absent. Recently, they have been included into pasture mixes as they are very palatable to stock and considered to have health benefits for grazing animals. This seed mix is also suitable for spray/drill method of establishment. Will feeding starch-based supplements improve reproduction? Our Environment section covers information about climate change, effluent, land, water and nutrient management on dairy farms. A significant weed of cereal and horticultural crops and often found scrambling up fencelines, A classic example of a desirable plant in pastures that can be undesirable in other situations. The value of the Last Name field is not valid. They have a blunt ligule and short auricles with a few hairs. This site provides information on 77 of the more troublesome Lucerne pasture mix: The Mix: Cultivar Description: Use for: Lucerne: Lucerne: SF 914QL: Highly productive, even in very dry years. It is a slender annual that grows to 30 cm tall with purple whorl shaped flowers. If you want more choice in your business, good money management is the bottom line. Though it is a perennial species it will still, Scentless Chamomile (Matricaria perforata) is a bushy annual or biennial plant that grows to 60 cm and is wholly or almost scentless. Broom is a … It has an erect stem, with branches only from mid stem, Shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) is a rosette annual with distinctive flower stems that grow to 30 cm high. They are small and numerous, and only open in sunlight, closing in the afternoon. Stems are upright, with downward pointing hairs and alternate branches. Willow herb (Epilobium nummulariifolium) is an upright erect growing perennial that is found throughout New Zealand. Several clover species occur throughout New Zealand with white and red clover the most common. The upper leaves are smooth and lance-shaped. The best time to spray weeds in new pasture is about 3-6 weeks after sowing, prior to the first full grazing. As its name suggests when crushed stinking mayweed has a very strong distinctive smell. Shogun is tailor-made for this purpose, with a … He found the conventional farm had more pasture growth overall, probably due to applications of urea, something not permitted on the organic farm. It starts as a rosette that then forms a vigorous upright stem up to 1.8 metres tall. It has sprawling and upright stems up to 40 cm long with a square, Field pansy (Viola arvensis) resembling the garden variety pansy, the field pansy grows year round in parts of the North Island, but more commonly in the South Island. Flowers appear September to November and stand above pasture in spring. In this review, we outline the problems caused by weeds in New Zealand pastures, and the management strategies being used to control them. Young Viticulturist of the Year 2019 – Are you this year’s prestigious winner? Gary Bosley, PGG Wrightson’s Technical Specialist, is a contributor to New Zealand Lifestyle Block magazine. It is a problem in small grain crops such as barley, causing up to 80% yield losses. Later when it comes into ear it develops the long silvery panicles which give it the other common names. Controlling them is an important part of pasture management. Depending upon the crop controlling 5-10 wild oats per square meter will result in an economic response. 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Thistle Killem™Ultra Herbicide. (Book no longer in print and hard to find in second-hand bookshops). The plant tends to grow in a bunched way and the seed heads are tall at around 1 m in height. The lower leaves have bristly hairs and are divided into pairs of lobes on the lower half of the leaf, whilst the upper part is one large terminal lobe. Seeds are light brown, oblong and approx. Vines climb and scramble, smothering trees and forest canopies. Select Legume Back to Test/grasses/cereals Lotus (Lotus pedunculatus) Lucerne (Medicago sativa) Red clover (Trifolium pratense) Strawberry clover (Trifolium fragiferum) Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) White clover (Trifolium repens) Test. Look for young plants in “gaps” in pasture. 7 ways to fight New Zealand weeds organically. and hedgerows Cleavers have a scrambling, clambering growth habit and “stickiness” due to tiny hooks on its  stems and seeds. Controls broadleaf weeds in pasture READ THIS LABEL COMPLETELY BEFORE MIXING OR APPLYING Dow AgroSciences (NZ) Ltd 89 Paritutu Road, Private Bag 2017, New Plymouth 4342 www.corteva.co.nz Telephone 0800 803 939 ACTIVE INGREDIENT: Contains 680 g/litre 2,4-D as the ethylhexyl ester in the form of an emulsifiable concentrate. They have a mouse-eared shape and grow to about 25mm long. Is a problematic weed in orchards and vineyards as it is tolerant to glyphosate. Black Beetle. Effective on a wide range of broadleaf weeds. Seeds are tiny, numerous and have a brown rough appearance and are often found in clover seed. The flowers are large, with twelve white petals, with central yellow disc florets, giving the flower a daisy-like appearance. Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) is a significant weed in arable and horticultural crops but it is also common in disturbed pasture. Enter your details to stay up to date with the latest product and industry information. so in the lower South Island. Ivy, old man’s beard, Japanese honeysuckle, climbing spindleberry, mothplant and banana passionfruit are all problem weed vines in New Zealand. Creeping mellow is widespread in the North Island but less common as you go southwards in the South Island. when temperatures increase. The tiny pale pink or lilac flowers are approximately 3 mm in the form of a cross and grow in groups of two or three out of a ring of six bracts between January and December. eight pairs of linear leaflets, and end in branched tendrils at the end of the leaves. favour drier conditions. Pasture Plant ID Pasture cultivar About 'Pasture Info' Pasture Info Home Weeds. A similar species, water pepper, grows taller and is common in wet places. When seed-heads are present they are quite distinct being open and with dark brown seeds. Widely distributed and very common in New Zealand, white clover is found in pasture, lawns, cultivated and waste land. Clovers are, Cornbind (Fallopia convolvulus) also known as Black-bindweed, is a climbing, spreading vine that grows to 1 – 1.5 m long with stems that twine clockwise around other plant stems. Wild oats can be successfully controlled with selective herbicides such as Puma S. However, if numbers are low hand rogueing should be undertaken if possible. The seeds are contained in a long seed-pod which resembles the bill of a stork. When in ear the short, stubby panicle (1.5 - 6 cm x 1.2 – 2.2 cm) is quite distinct and makes a good identification feature. Spurrey germinates in the autumn and spring. Barnyard grass germinates in the spring, Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) is a significant weed in arable and horticultural crops but it is also common in disturbed pasture. Common yarrow (Achillea millefolium) has only about 10 percent crude protein during the flowering stage. Active ingredient: 680 g/l 2,4-D ethyl hexyl ester. Fathen is an extremely vigorous weed that can quickly outcompete and smother crops. The, Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) is an annual weed, found throughout New Zealand. Information about feed management on dairy farms, including seasonal management, production systems, supplements, crops and pasture types. Pea-like flowers vary in colour from white, to pink to purple, and are found singly or in pairs, but not clusters. For rapid establishment, sow in a firm, fine and moist seedbed, free of weeds. The leaves are fern like and sticky. height and is characterised by red coloured stem. The latter authors note that “R. The flowers grow in clusters and each flower has. 20L 200L (Order the weed booklet or download the app at extension.missouri.edu/p/ipm1031. This page will help you with weed identification and includes all of the common weeds that affect your crops and the major pasture weeds. The leaves are sticky, hairy, Nettle (Urtica urens) is present New Zealand wide except for Northland, Taranaki and Westland. When weeds become a continual … When mature, the ear readily breaks up and adheres to animal fur and clothing which ensures it spreads very effectively. crop seedlings and establishing pastures. Distinctive black berries (7-10 mm) can … Tall fescue thrives in the cooler weather of spring and autumn, only, Fumitory (Fumaria muralis) is a weak-stemmed scrambling and climbing annual weed with pink tubular flowers. 5L (4) 20L 200L Pasture Kleen®Xtra Relay™Super S Synergy™2,4-D ester. You can either search the weed tiles below to identify the key weeds you are needing to control in your crop or use the filter to search for the herbicides available for use in the crop you're needing to protect. The stem branches widely on the upper part of the plant, and the, Oxtongue (Picris echioides) a tall (up to 1 m) bristly leaved annual or biennial with yellow dandelion like flowers. As plants get bigger the leaves are shiny underneath and these stand out, especially on breezy days. The value of the First Name field is not valid. Read Gary's monthly Pasture Weed Watch articles for tips on controlling a range of weeds on your lifestyle block or farm. Chickweed flowers and sets seeds simultaneously. Local trials showed this combination of active ingredients consistently provided the highest level of early broadleaf weed control in new pasture prior to the first grazing. Good pasture management will help prevent weed proliferation. Gorse has also become a problem plant in the western United States and Chile.                      Â, Lesser canary grass (Phalaris minor) is originally from the Mediterranean and is now a common, annual grass weed of winter planted cereal crops. Scotch Broom: Cytisus scoparius. When small VFG has very thin upright and hair-like leaves, hence its name, and it grows in a tufty manner. It grows to 80 cm tall, and during October to April has white yellow or lilac flowers 15-20 mm with 4 petals. It is resistant to cold, trampling and many herbicides. Later, when in ear look at the seedhead as ryegrasses have one edge of the seed against the axis which means the flat side of the seed is visible. maize). Crested dogstail (Cynosurus cristatus) To identify look for young plants between the crop rows, young plants are upright and the leaves have prominent veins. It is an annual that starts as a rosette that develops a tall, leafy and succulent stem, Speedwell (Veronica persica) is very common throughout New Zealand, is a sprawling, many stemmed annual with blue flowers. Seeds are triangular and shiny black. Leaves are on long stalks, light green, lobed, with toothed margins. “We have a smartphone app and a booklet to help,” he says. The leaves consist of three leaflets (in a shamrock shape) which are hairless, finely toothed, Wild portulaca (Portulaca oleracea) is a fleshly annual weed that has a prostrate habit, spreading out to 30 cm wide. CODE Synergy 2,4-D Amine 720 Synergy 2,4-D Ester 680 2,4-DB Aminopyralid, ... Controls broadleaf weeds in pasture grass and white clover seed crops, peas and cereals. Cornbind is more commonly found in the South Island (South Canterbury), but is showing up increasingly in cultivated areas in Hawkes Bay and Wellington. It is normally found in gardens and crops rather than in pastures as it needs bare soil to get established bec… With the average size New Zealand farm at 232 hectares and a pasture renewal cost of about $600 per hectare, this means the average farmer would need to spend between $13,000 and $27,000 per year to keep their pastures in top condition. Pasture Guard 2,4-D 680 controls most broadleaf weed species in established pasture, some crops and non cropland areas. It germinates in the spring and is common in crops, disturbed ground and thin established pastures. It is common, Wireweed (Polygonum aviculare) is a widespread annual with wiry, trailing stems that form mats up to 1 m in width. It is an annual that germinates in the spring and early summer and then dies off in the autumn, Field madder (Sheradia arvensis) a widespread annual weed commonly found in paddocks, pasture and grassland. Please refer to the product label for a full list of rates, the weeds controlled by the product and other important information. Creeping mallow (Modiola caroliniana) is a mat forming biennial or perennial weed which can be problematic in orchards, turf and gardens. Annual Identification: Distinctive foliage not easily confused with any other weed. Healy AJ, Edgar E, 1980. Black nightshade is present throughout New Zealand but less. Sow at a depth of approximately 15mm. A weed free lucerne stand – particularly aggressive against Californian and other thistles. Create an attractive workplace for staff and maximise time out in the paddock for cows by milking efficiently. Yellow bristle grass is a pest plant that poses a serious threat to pasture. As with any agricultural production system, weeds are a threat to efficient pasture production in New Zealand. Flowers are white, about 1 cm in diameter, with 5 deeply divided petals that appear to be 10 petals. It can often grow dense. The flowers grow in clusters, are a pale yellow, and appear between December and March. The seedhead is cylindrical, up to 10 cm long and yellowish in colour due to the bristles associated with each spikelet. vegetative but grows up to 45 cm when flowering. Pods develop up to 6 cm long, containing 5 to 8 seeds which can break into individual sections. Uncontrolled perennial ryegrass will significantly reduce yields. flowers consist of central yellow disc florets, surrounded by five white ray florets which are 3 lobed at the tip. The leaves are very large and broad (up to 35 cm long and 15 cm wide) hairy underneath, and have long stems. Left uncontrolled wild oats will quickly grow into large, multi-tillered, competitive grass weeds. The plant grows close to the ground when young; when older stems can grow upwards to about 30 cm. sylvestris) is a persistent annual found in arable crops in Canterbury and Southland, and throughout New Zealand. scrambling habit out to 40 cm. populations of this grass weed tend to be large and they then compete for light, nutrients and water. Distinctive black berries (7-10 mm) can be found on mature plants. It has a prostrate creeping stems which root at the nodes. Found throughout New Zealand, except in Westland (South Island) and Taranaki (North Island) in gardens, cultivated areas, and shady areas on footpaths, and at the edges of forests. AgPest contains a number of New Zealand pasture weeds and pests, which have been chosen in consultation with key farming, industry and research personnel. The seeds are contained in green egg-shaped capsules, and one plant produces about 15,000 seeds, which remain capable of germination in the soil for up to 5 years. found growing on roadsides, waste grounds and disturbed ground. Commonly seen in winter, it does not, Cleavers (Galium aparine) are a common, widespread annual weed found throughout New Zealand. It is frost sensitive so it only, Wild Oats (Avena fatua) Wild oats are a common and very damaging weed that can occur in many crops. Most pregnancy losses occur in the first week after breeding. Capable of germinating at any time of year, they will just as successfully grow and compete in, Wild radish or Charlock (Raphanus raphanistrum) is a rapidly spreading, invasive, frost hardy plant found throughout New Zealand, except in Taranaki. RD 1. in New Zealand. Germination takes place throughout the year and is set very quickly meaning populations soon increase. Later, when in ear look at the seedhead as ryegrasses have one edge of the seed against the axis which means the flat side of the seed is visible. Giant buttercup is unpalatable to dairy cows and poses a serious threat to dairy pastures. Fathen (Chenopodium album) is one of the most serious weeds of cropping throughout New Zealand. The open flowers are at the top of the branched stems; the unopened buds below. The leaves. Left uncontrolled VHG is a very aggressive weed leading to very serious yield losses and reduced seed quality through contamination. leaves being non-hairy, rough and long, tapering to a fine point. ceasing growth when temperatures fall close to freezing. Last Name must have at least 0 and no more than 256 characters. Germinates in both autumn and spring, so can be a problem weed in, Spurrey (Spergula arvensis) is a fine-stemmed, sprawling annual weed which is commonly found throughout New Zealand. Flora of New Zealand Volume III, Adventive Cyperaceae, Petalous and Spathaceous Monocotyledons. It is common throughout New Zealand and is a significant weed of crops (especially cereals) as it can smother crops if notÂ, Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora), also known as Gallant Soldier, is an annual upright weed which grows to about 75 cm tall. Cultivar selection Undersowing can improve thin pastures for 1 - 3 years prior to full renewal. The flowers are white with a pink tinge, and grouped in round heads 1.5-3cm in diameter. system. 50 cm tall with soft, leafy stems and distinctive yellow flowers. Broad-leaved fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis) is an annual or biennial weed that is common throughout New Zealand on roadsides, wasteland, orchards and vineyards. which it is related. Contact details for DairyNZ regional offices, consulting officers, and our Farmer Information Service. Oval shaped mid green coloured leaves in a rosette formation have a shallow toothed edge. The erect weed grows to, Hawkesbeard (Crepis capillaris) is a common annual or biennial weed found throughout New Zealand in turf, lawns, crops and newly sown pasture. The plant can grow to 1 m tall. Commonly found in arable land, pastures and roadsides. are arrow-shaped up to 9 cm long by 6 cm wide. It is a particular problem when itÂ. Male and female flowers are on different plants The calyx is long and inflated, pale green in colour sometimes with brownish-purple veins showing, but narrower than that seen in Bladder Campion. 1.5 mm long, encased in an oval pod. quoted as high-fertility pasture weeds (Elliot, 1955; Cavers and Harper, 1964). upwards. Black beetle (Heteronychus arator) is a pest in the upper North Island, on light, free draining soils such as peat. Vines. Seed pods are found close to the stems; seeds are 1 mm long, brown and oblong. spring sown crops as it can be very competitive and smother crops. YBG germinates in late spring as temperatures rise and grows quickly setting a large number of seeds from December onwards. AgPest™ is a free tool to assist New Zealand farmers and agricultural professionals in decision-making regarding weed and pest identification, biology, impact and management. Clover Root Weevil. seen in pasture. It prefers moist situations and can be a problematic weed in orchards because of its tolerance to glyphosate.Â, Willow weed (Persicaria maculosa) is an erect and sprawling summer growing annual that can be a serious weed in crops (e.g. There are also other weeds such as privet, gorse, broom and ragwort that might be in the top 20 in certain situations. Common Pasture Weeds. Find how to identify common insect and plant pests on-farm and minimise their impact to pasture... Black beetle (Heteronychus arator) is a pest in the upper North Island, on light, free draining soils such as peat. conspicuously present in the winter although it can germinate at any time through the year. The leaves and stems are dark green, rough and bristly. Conventional pasture renewal requires ploughing the ground and sowing between 30 and 100 kg of seed per hectare. Story by Ian Popay Main image: Scotch thistle Pp. It has characteristic reddish stems with yellow flowers. Is elevated blood BHB a suitable indicator of poor performance in grazing cows? in the spring and summer throughout New Zealand but is quickly killed by frosts. It is common in the upper North Island and more occasionally further southwards. Staggerweed is a reasonably small annual weed which tends to scramble across the ground rather than grow upright. Research has shown over 99% of seeds in the soil on dairy farms are weeds 1, and these can take over if thin pastures aren’t thickened with ryegrass. It can grow up to 1 m in. From genetics to herd management and more, this section covers topics that will help guide your decisions.

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